To download the whitepaper (2019) as a pdf, please follow this link.

The underlying and updated (as of July 2021) data is available as csv in this repository’s data folder, or…

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Slides and presentations

Both the whitepaper and the underlying data are open under CC-BY and CC0 license respectively. Please feel free to use and reuse, and contribute. Watch this space for an updated version of the white paper and the data.

Cite the white paper:

Duca, D., & Metzler, K. (2019). The ecosystem of technologies for social science research (White paper). London, UK: Sage. doi: 10.4135/wp191101

Cite the underlying data:

Duca, D. (2019) The ecosystem of technologies for social science research (dataset). doi: 10.5281/zenodo.3555207

This project is brought to you by SAGE Ocean, enabling social scientists to work with big data and new technologies.


This paper would not have been possible without the work of Shulin Hu and Lily Davies, both master’s students within the Digital Humanities programme at University College London, and Eve Kraicer, master’s student in Gender Studies at the London School of Economics, whose work on this project involved data cleaning and looking at gender distribution. We also want to thank all the researchers, developers, and startup founders who endured and answered with patience and insight our endless questions.